Influence of smoking on wrinkles formation
Smoking causes presenilation and formation of wrinkles on the face. For the first time it has been noted in 1856. In 1965 Dr. M. Ippen and coworkers have offered the term “a cigarette skin” for a designation of an acyanotically-gray rugosity skin. They found out such skin in 79 % of smokers and only at 19 % of non-smoking women at the age of 35-84 years.
Work of Dr. Н Danielle in 1971 has shown that the expressed wrinkles on the face meet at smokers, than at non-smoking people, irrespective of age, sex and environmental conditions much more often. It is established that the quantity of folds correlates with quantity of packs of cigarettes smoked for a year. Authors have considered that smoking has more expressed influence on formation of folds, than sunlight.
In 1985 Dr. D. Model has offered the term “the face of the smoker” and has defined its diagnostic criteria. For definition of “the face of the smoker” is enough one of the below given points:
1. Acting lines or wrinkles on the face;
2. Emaciated features with the underlined line of bones of a skull;
3. Slightly pigmented, grayish skin;
4. A hydropic skin, with an orange, purple or reddish shade.
In the research the author has defined presence of “skins of the smoker” at 46 % of smoking people, at 8 % of smoking in the past and at one non-smoking person. Correlation between smoking and presence of “the face of the smoker” didn’t depend on time of stay on the sun, age, a social accessory and a recent weight loss.
The risk of premature occurrence of folds amplifies at augmentation of quantity of smoked cigarettes for a year, and 50 packs of smoking more in a year in 4,7 times have folds, than non-smoking the same sex and age more often. Some authors consider influence of sun rays by more powerful factor of occurrence of folds, than smoking. It is obvious that interaction of these factors leads to even more expressed effect.
Researches have shown that the organism of women is more sensitive to influence of a cigarette smoke, than an organism of men. Till now true mechanisms with which help the cigarette smoke causes skin presenilation are unknown, but most likely it is multifactorial process. It has been established that elastin in a skin at smokers more dense than at non-smoking people.
These changes in elastic fibers are similar to the changes occurring from influence of sun rays, with that the difference is in that at smokers they affect a mesh layer of a derma, instead of papillary as it takes place at an actinic elastosis. The cigarette smoke strengthens activity of elastase of neutrophils, promoting these to formation of defective elastin. In vitro the cigarette smoke blocks cross-section communications in elastin. The chronic ischemia of a derma, possibly, promotes damage of elastic fibers, and also reduces collagen synthesis.
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