Each version of a cancer has the risk factors, for example smoking is the risk factor for such diseases, as a cancer of a lung, oral cavities and larynxes. However it is not necessary to assert that existence of such risk factor or several such factors will by all means lead to occurrence of this disease.
Here are presented following risk factors for melanoma desease:
Nevus, that is birthmarks, it is good-quality melanoma’s tumors. They may appear after birth, but start to be shown at children and teenagers. There are some kinds of a nevus which contribute to this disease.
Dysplastic nevus or birthmark is one of such kinds which raise risk of a melanoma. A dysplastic nevus is very similar with usual birthmarks and melanomas. As a rule, they settle down on unprotected places from the sun, but there can be also seen on the closed sites of a body, for example, on breeches or closed by hair, head parts. The size of a dysplastic nevus can be larger than a usual birthmark and also it can be plural. A dysplastic nevus has quite often some members of a family. At sick people with the Dysplastic nevus the risk of disease by a melanoma makes from 6 to 10 %.
Not dysplastic and not congenital nevus enough turns to a melanoma, but people having set of birthmarks of the large sizes nevertheless are subjected to such risk.
Light skin, freckles and a blond hair. Among white people in comparison with Blacks risk of disease by a melanoma in 20 times higher. The risk of development of melanoma is raised at blue-eyed people with a blond hair having set of freckles on a skin. However melanoma can arise at any person, it is independent to a color of skin, in particular on such sites of a body, as palms, feet, under fingernails, in an oral cavity.
Role of the family anamnesis: The raised risk factor of disease by a melanoma exists at the people having one or more near relations with melanoma ill people. The risk rises depending on quantity of relatives suffering this illness. The statistics shows that 10 % of patients have a family anamnesis. And also at 40 % of families with the raised frequency of disease the mutation of a gene which is responsible for melanoma development has been seen also.
Process of destruction of immune system by the people accepting strong preparations, for example, at transplantation of organs calls immune suppression. Such people also have the big risk to be ill with a melanoma.
Influence of ultra-violet radiation: The sun is the basic source of ultra-violet radiation. The people often receiving superfluous quantity of radiation also have the raised risk to be ill with a skin cancer, including a melanoma.
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